Final Project Abstracts

Final projects will be presented on Tuesday! Here is a look at what each group is studying…

Lijiang Pod
Dima, Kelly, Major, Wendy, Louis, Arisa

Topic: Legislative and executive responses of Chinese and U.S. governments to water pollution.

Abstract: Our project covers water pollution issues in the Dianchi Lake in China and the Onondaga Lake in the U.S. Both water bodies have similar problems, but the outcomes of the actions of the U.S. and Chinese governments are drastically different. Therefore, the major task of our group was to compare the economic, legislative and ethical aspects of the project, as well as to describe the science behind the pollution issues and the executive responses of the authorities. In the process of research our group came up with the following conclusions: first, in many ways the concrete actions taken by the two states to mitigate the effects of the chemicals on the lake are similar. Second, the differences between the governments of two countries define the ethical issues, the stringency of the law enforcement, which determines the effect on businesses, and the availability of data.

中美两国政府应对染的政策和

概况:组项目的研究重点是中国滇池和美国奥内达加湖(Onondaga lake)的水染。两的水体染有很多相同点,但是两国政府应对的方法有很大不同。因此,我们组主要通过对经济、政策、理道德和水染背后的科学原因四个方面的研究,得出了以下结论

第一,两国政府减少化学物染采取了相似的措施。第二,两国政府在行政策的道德、法律的行效力,和数据的可信度都有很大不同。些不同都影响了措施的行。

Lugu Lake Pod
Ling, Felix, Zachary, Rosa, Richard, Andy

In our research we compare the Deepwater Horizon spill of 2010 and the Yellow River spill of 2010. We compared these two spills through the lenses of Biology, Chemistry, Culture, Economics and Ethics. The Biological and Economic impacts of these spills were similar in type and scope. However the incentive structures within these companies and governments were completely different. As a result both countries had different priorities with regards to the environment. Therefore, solutions to these problems must keep in mind the differences in incentives and priorities.

在我们的研究中,我们对比了2010年发生的墨西哥湾石油泄露事件和2010年的黄河陕西柴油泄露事件。我们从生物,化学,文化,经济,以及伦理的角度比较了这两件事件。这两件石油泄露事件在类型和大小上来说,对经济,生物方面的影响是相似的。然而这两家公司的运营模式和两国的政府完全不同。美国的资本主义政府与中国的社会主义政府形成对比。这样以来的结果是,两国在泄露事件上基于环境问题有不同的优先做法,因此我们在看待这两起事件解决方法的时候,必须将两国不同的优先考虑的事项和不同的奖惩措施纳入考虑中。

Shangri-La Pod
Clara, Mika, Cathy, Max, William, Maddie

Our pod is studying the present drought in California and the recently ended drought in Henan province. Our presentation can be divided into four main parts: the reasons behind the drought, the economic ramifications of the drought, the solutions and ideas that have been implemented, and the idea of inequality in water distribution. Though these two areas differ significantly in many respects, both California and Henan are dry areas with low precipitation and a high reliance on agriculture. The lack of supply and high demand for water exacerbated the drought in both California and Henan. California’s ongoing drought is also affected by the weather pattern, El Niño. The economic expense is also quite high in both areas. Both California and Henan have large agricultural industries which require huge amounts of water. Farmland goes unplanted in California, while in Henan, farmers had to plant different crops. In Henan, water intensive companies are shut down while in California, water intensive companies must be more efficient without government subsidies. This brings up the idea of water distribution and inequality, and how different people have had to make different lifestyle changes. Perhaps the drought has been exacerbating inequality. Though Henan and California are located over 10,000 kilometers from each other, they both face the problem of drought. Our hope in this project is to compare and contrast the two different droughts, explore the role of water in society, and examine societal inequality through the lens of water distribution.

我们的小组主要研究的是加利福尼亚目前正面临的干旱问题,和最近在河南刚刚结束的干旱问题。我们的展示分为四个主要部分:干旱背后的原因,干旱背后的经济,政府的政策和救灾措施,和在水资源分配上不公平的现状。尽管加州和河南在很多方面都有着显著的不同,但它们都是干旱严重的地区。他们的降水量都很少,同时他们对于农业都有着严重的依赖性。短缺的供应和大量的对于水资源的需求都使得加州和河南的干旱问题日益加剧。同时,加州正在面临的干旱问题更受到了厄尔尼诺天气的影响。经济上的影响在这两个地区也非常显著。在加州和河南都有许多大量用水的农业型企业。加州的许多农场已经不再运作,而与此同时,在河南,农民开始选择种植其他的农作物类型,大量耗水的企业也已经被关停。而在加利福尼亚,没有了政府的补贴,这些大量耗水的企业则需要提高他们的效率。这就引出了关于水资源供应和分配不公的问题,及部分人不得不改变生活方式的问题。也许,干旱使得社会资源的不平等分配变得更加严重。尽管河南和加州在地理位置上彼此相距超过10000千米,但是他们都面临着干旱的问题。我们希望通过我们的研究来对比分析这两个不同的干旱的情况,探究水资源在社会中的重要的地位,并且通过研究水资源分配问题来探究社会中的不公平的现象。

Stone Forest Pod
Sithya, Rachel, Josephine, Sam, Willow

This project will focus on the process of eutrophication and its scientific, economic, and ethical effects on Lake Erie in the United States and Lake Dianchi in China. It will also cover the governmental response to fixing it. Eutrophication is a natural or artificial process where an excess of nutrients – nitrogen and phosphorus – enter a body of water, which promotes algal growth. The resulting algal bloom begins to deplete the oxygen from the water, posing harmful threats to the animals and plants already there. Both of the lakes have had fairly recent problems with eutrophication, Lake Erie in 2011, and Dianchi in 1989. The eutrophication affected industries nearby and prompted governments to set restrictions on how much waste could be dumped into the lake, and for Dianchi, some waste treatment plants were started to clean up the pollution.

这个项目关于富营养化和它的科学,经济,和伦理的影响在美国的Erie湖和中国的滇池湖。项目也关于政府的回答。富营养化是个自然或人为造成的现象,多余的营养(氮和磷)进入水体,促进了水藻的生长。藻类爆发会是水中的氧气含量下降,危害水中的植物和动物。这两个湖最近有富营养化的问题,Erie湖2011年,滇池湖1989年。富营养化影响了旁边的产业所以提醒了政府实行有关在湖里的污水排放的限制。关于滇池,有些水处理厂开始清洁水污染。

Yulong Mountain Pod
Fadzi, Jaylyn, Joel, Tim, Tiger, Alex

Tourism is rapidly becoming one of the most important sectors of economic growth in the world. However, while tourism is often seen as a welcome source of economic development, conventional mass tourism is associated with numerous negative effects. Tourism puts enormous pressure on an area’s environment, which can lead to impacts such as increased pollution, discharges into the sea, and natural habitat loss. More importantly, tourism can often puts a strain and greatly affect the quality of water resources, and it can force local populations to compete for the use of this critical resources. Our project analyzes the economic, scientific, and ethical effects that tourism has had on Lake Tahoe. The purpose of this research is to then project the possible future of Lake Lugu, an up and coming tourist destination. In turn, we hope to find possible solutions and projects that will keep Lake Lugu as fresh and as clean as it is today.

在当今社会发展过程中,旅游业已迅速成为对经济增长起决定作用的因素。然而,即使旅游业是经济发展的有效动力,常见的大量游客涌入常常会给当地带来许多负面的影响。游客涌入会给当地环境带来巨大的压力,例如过度污染,向海中排放污染源,以及自然栖息地萎缩的诸多问题。除此之外,更重要的是,旅游业发展会对水资源质量造成极大的影响,使得当地居民为这一短缺资源展开竞争。我们研究的项目从经济、科学、道德三方面分析了旅游业发展对塔霍湖的影响,并将其与泸沽湖进行比较。鉴于泸沽湖与塔霍湖有许多相似之处,我们希望通过我们的研究,借鉴塔霍湖的经验,可以找到针对泸沽湖的解决方案,保持其湖水的清洁,避免重蹈塔霍湖的覆辙。

Tiger Leaping Gorge Pod
Gherardo, Max, King, Mae, Max, Mary

Shale gas is a growing source of energy in the U.S, but the technology to access these reservoirs is relatively young and controversial. Fracking involves the injection of huge amounts of highly pressurized water with numerous hazardous and unidentified chemicals into seams of shale rock, forcing trapped gas and oil to seep out to where it can collected. This process can prove detrimental to the environment if the used water is not handled properly, following strict regulations. As of now, the US is the leading country in fracking technology and usage. On the other hand, China is estimated to have the highest shale gas and oil reserves but hasn’t exploited it. However, like the US, it is slowed down by potential environmental limitations, like water scarcity, and expensive technologies that still need to be developed. The economics of fracking are interesting as its relation to industry development spurs demand and consequently also economic growth, regardless of possible technological and environmental costs. On the global level, fracking has the potential to shape international affairs and economics growth. Yet, on the local level, high environmental costs have to be paid by local communities in order to achieve a national benefit.

页岩气在美国是一种越来越重要的能源来源,但是利用这些资源的技术还是比较的不成熟还具有争议。液压破碎法将含有各种有害没且未知的化学物质的高压水摄入页岩石的缝隙中,让缝隙中的页岩气排出并利用。这个过程需要利用大量的水。要是污水没处理好也不守规矩,还会对环境造成很大的危害。现在,美国是页岩气开发的领先者,而中国估计是拥有最多页岩气资源的国家但是开发量很小。中国开发液压破碎发的空间很大。但是,如同美国,中国在这方面上的发展被可能的环境污染问题,未完善的昂贵的技术和更严重的水缺乏问题而限制。液压破碎发的经济情况很有趣,因为很多产业产生需求和经济的增长,虽然液压破碎发任然在面临巨大的科技和环境消费的问题。从国际角度来看,水力压裂法有改变世界外交和经济的潜力。从小的角度来看,环境的成本要由本地社区承担为了国家的利益。

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